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OpenGauss WAL 日志 与 归档 配置

2023-03-13 19:28 2066 0 原创 openGauss
作者: dave

1 WAL日志说明

预写式日志WAL(Write Ahead Log,也称为Xlog)是实现事务日志的标准方法,对数据文件(表和索引的载体)持久化修改之前必须先持久化相应的日志。如果要修改数据文件,必须是在这些修改操作已经记录到日志文件之后才能进行修改,即在描述这些变化的日志记录刷新到永久存储器之后。在系统崩溃时,可以使用WAL日志对openGauss进行恢复操作。

openGauss的wal日志存储在pg_xlog目录下。

[dave@www.cndba.cn pg_xlog]$ pwd
/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog
[dave@www.cndba.cn pg_xlog]$ ll
total 278528
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Feb 19 16:38 000000010000000000000001
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Feb 21 05:43 000000010000000000000002
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Feb 22 18:03 000000010000000000000003
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Feb 23 23:08 000000010000000000000004
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Feb 25 04:13 000000010000000000000005
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Feb 26 16:34 000000010000000000000006
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Feb 27 21:40 000000010000000000000007
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar  1 02:44 000000010000000000000008
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar  2 14:48 000000010000000000000009
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar  3 20:11 00000001000000000000000A
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar  5 01:16 00000001000000000000000B
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar  6 12:39 00000001000000000000000C
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar  7 18:42 00000001000000000000000D
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar  8 23:47 00000001000000000000000E
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 10 11:43 00000001000000000000000F
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 11 23:12 000000010000000000000010
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 12 22:54 000000010000000000000011
drwx------ 2 omm dbgrp       10 Feb 19 16:37 archive_status
[dave@www.cndba.cn pg_xlog]$

日志文件以段文件的形式存储的,每个段为16MB,并分割成若干页,每页8KB。

对WAL日志的命名规则:000000010000000000000001

https://www.cndba.cn/dave/article/116488

wal文件的名称由24个十六进制组成,分为三个部分,每个部分由8个十六进制字符组成。
第一部分表示时间线:00000001表示timeline;
第二部分表示日志文件标号:00000000表示logid;
第三部分表示日志文件的段标号:00000001表示logseg.

这些数字一般情况下是顺序增长使用的,但也存在循环使用的情况。WAL日志的内容取决于记录事务的类型,在系统崩溃时可以利用WAL日志进行恢复。默认配置下,openGauss每次启动时会先读取WAL日志进行恢复。https://www.cndba.cn/dave/article/116488

https://www.cndba.cn/dave/article/116488

为了进一步的减少WAL log file的I/O操作,PostgreSQL中引入了WAL log buffer,对产生的WAL log record日志进行缓存,合并I/O操作。

WAL log buffer可以理解为一个环形的共享缓存,在每次写入新的日志记录时:

  1. 当WAL log buffer中有足够的空间,顺序写入到缓存区中
  2. 当WAL log buffer写到尾部且空间不足时,从头部刷出信息后重复利用,并将头部向后移动

WAL log buffer中的数据最终必须写入WAL log file中,这会在以下时机发生:

  1. WAL log buffer满
  2. WALWriter进程周期性工作
  3. 事务提交
  4. 创建Checkpoint

WAL log buffer写入WAL log file之后,可能在操作系统的page cache中缓存,并没有真正写入到文件中,所以还需要有flush机制,openGauss支持同步和异步两种方式:

  1. synchronous_commit(默认值为ON)为ON,则为同步方式,写入WAL log file之后会flush,然后才返回
  2. synchronous_commit为OFF,则为异步方式,写入WAL log file之后立即返回

2 归档配置

WAL 日志并不是一直保存,否则会占用大量的磁盘空间。 wal_keep_segments参数控制wal日志保留的个数,默认保留最近16个。 因此生产环境为了数据库恢复,需要开启归档模式,定时将WAL 日志复制到归档目录。

2.1 查看当前状态

[dave@www.cndba.cn ~]$ gsql -d web -p 15400
Password: 
gsql ((openGauss 3.0.3 build 46134f73) compiled at 2023-01-10 22:42:07 commit 0 last mr  )
Non-SSL connection (SSL connection is recommended when requiring high-security)
Type "help" for help.

web=# show data_directory;
         data_directory          
---------------------------------
 /data/openGauss/install/data/dn
(1 row)

web=# show archive_mode;
 archive_mode 
--------------
 off
(1 row)

web=#

2.2 启用归档模式

修改opengauss配置文件中的如下3个参数:

web=# alter system set archive_mode='on';
ALTER SYSTEM SET

web=# alter system set wal_level='hot_standby';
NOTICE:  please restart the database for the POSTMASTER level parameter to take effect.
ALTER SYSTEM SET

web=# alter system set archive_command='cp %p /data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog/%f';
ALTER SYSTEM SET

重启openGauss,让参数修改生效。https://www.cndba.cn/dave/article/116488

[dave@www.cndba.cn dn]$ gs_om -t restart
Stopping cluster.
=========================================
Successfully stopped cluster.
=========================================
End stop cluster.
Starting cluster.
=========================================
[SUCCESS] hf-172-31-101-18
2023-03-13 14:04:48.471 640ebd00.1 [unknown] 140517756856000 [unknown] 0 dn_6001 01000  0 [BACKEND] WARNING:  could not create any HA TCP/IP sockets
2023-03-13 14:04:48.471 640ebd00.1 [unknown] 140517756856000 [unknown] 0 dn_6001 01000  0 [BACKEND] WARNING:  could not create any HA TCP/IP sockets
2023-03-13 14:04:48.472 640ebd00.1 [unknown] 140517756856000 [unknown] 0 dn_6001 01000  0 [BACKEND] WARNING:  No explicit IP is configured for listen_addresses GUC.
Password: 
=========================================
Successfully started.
[dave@www.cndba.cn dn]$ 

web=# show archive_mode;
 archive_mode 
--------------
 on
(1 row)

web=# show archive_command;
                   archive_command                   
-----------------------------------------------------
 cp %p /data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog/%f
(1 row)

web=#

开启归档后在归档路径下的archive_status目录里,会有一个类似xxx.ready和xxx.done的文件。

[dave@www.cndba.cn archive_status]$ pwd
/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/archive_status
[dave@www.cndba.cn archive_status]$ ll
total 0
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 0 Mar 13 14:05 000000010000000000000001.ready
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 0 Mar 13 14:14 000000010000000000000002.ready
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 0 Mar 13 14:04 000000010000000000000012.ready
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 0 Mar 13 14:13 000000010000000000000013.ready
[dave@www.cndba.cn archive_status]$

.ready表示WAL已经写满,可以调用归档命令了。
.done表示已归档完成。

查看归档文件:

[dave@www.cndba.cn archivelog]$ pwd
/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog
[dave@www.cndba.cn archivelog]$ ll
total 196608
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000001
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000002
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000003
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000004
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000005
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000006
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000012
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000013
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000014
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000015
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000016
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000017
[dave@www.cndba.cn archivelog]$

3 WAL 日志删除

我们先查看参数:wal_keep_segments

web=# select name, setting,source from pg_settings where name like '%wal%';
              name               |   setting   |       source       
---------------------------------+-------------+--------------------
 enable_wal_shipping_compression | off         | default
 max_wal_senders                 | 16          | configuration file
 wal_block_size                  | 8192        | default
 wal_buffers                     | 2048        | default
 wal_file_init_num               | 10          | default
 wal_flush_delay                 | 1           | default
 wal_flush_timeout               | 2           | default
 wal_keep_segments               | 16          | configuration file
 wal_level                       | hot_standby | configuration file
 wal_log_hints                   | on          | default
 wal_receiver_buffer_size        | 65536       | default
 wal_receiver_connect_retries    | 1           | default
 wal_receiver_connect_timeout    | 2           | default
 wal_receiver_status_interval    | 5           | default
 wal_receiver_timeout            | 6000        | default
 wal_segment_size                | 2048        | default
 wal_sender_timeout              | 6000        | default
 wal_sync_method                 | fdatasync   | default
 wal_writer_delay                | 200         | default
 walsender_max_send_size         | 8192        | configuration file
 walwriter_cpu_bind              | -1          | default
 walwriter_sleep_threshold       | 500         | default
(22 rows)

web=# 

web=# select name, setting,source from pg_settings where name ='wal_keep_segments';
       name        | setting |       source       
-------------------+---------+--------------------
 wal_keep_segments | 16      | configuration file
(1 row)

默认配置下,WAL 会保留16个wal 日志,在开启归档后,在wal转归档完成后,也会删除wal日志。

web=# show archive_command;
                   archive_command                   
-----------------------------------------------------
 cp %p /data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog/%f
(1 row)

archive_command命令会将WAL 复制到到归档目录,然后被清理掉。在openGauss的日志里会记录到如下信息:

https://www.cndba.cn/dave/article/116488
https://www.cndba.cn/dave/article/116488

LOG: attempting to remove WAL segments older than log file 000000010000000000000006

但如果启动了归档模式(archive_mode=on),但没有配置archive_command,或者改命令配置的不正确,那么那么WAL文件会一直堆积,因为archive_command命令不会运行,不会触发归档命令,所以一直都不会写.done,从而导致pg_wal文件堆积,占用大量得磁盘空间。

此时可以使用pg_archivecleanup命令来清理。https://www.cndba.cn/dave/article/116488https://www.cndba.cn/dave/article/116488

查看检查点以前的WAL文件https://www.cndba.cn/dave/article/116488

[dave@www.cndba.cn pg_xlog]$ pg_controldata /data/openGauss/install/data/dn
pg_control version number:            923
Catalog version number:               201611171
Database system identifier:           4095258363992716874
Database cluster state:               in production
pg_control last modified:             Mon 13 Mar 2023 03:17:08 PM CST
Latest checkpoint location:           0/18002700
Prior checkpoint location:            0/180025E0
Latest checkpoint's REDO location:    0/18002680
Latest checkpoint's TimeLineID:       1
Latest checkpoint's full_page_writes: off
Latest checkpoint's NextXID:          69064
Latest checkpoint's NextOID:          16474
Latest checkpoint's NextMultiXactId:  2
Latest checkpoint's NextMultiOffset:  0
Latest checkpoint's oldestXID:        12663
Latest checkpoint's oldestXID's DB:   15481
Latest checkpoint's oldestActiveXID:  69064
Latest checkpoint's remove lsn:          0/8
Time of latest checkpoint:            Mon 13 Mar 2023 03:17:08 PM CST
Minimum recovery ending location:     0/0
Backup start location:                0/0
Backup end location:                  0/0
End-of-backup record required:        no
Current wal_level setting:            hot_standby
Current max_connections setting:      5050
Current max_prepared_xacts setting:   800
Current max_locks_per_xact setting:   256
Maximum data alignment:               8
Database block size:                  8192
Blocks per segment of large relation: 131072
WAL block size:                       8192
Bytes per WAL segment:                16777216
Maximum length of identifiers:        64
Maximum columns in an index:          32
Maximum size of a TOAST chunk:        1996
Date/time type storage:               64-bit integers
Float4 argument passing:              by value
Float8 argument passing:              by value
Database system TimeLine:             9
[dave@www.cndba.cn pg_xlog]$

这里表示000000010000000000000018 之前的文件都可以删除,然后执行 pg_archivecleanup命令。

删除归档使用的是pg_archivecleanup工具,但是在该版本的openGauss目录中没有搜到该工具,所以从pg里复制了一个过来,注意复制的是pg 10版本,不过不影响使用:

[root@hf-172-31-101-18 ~]usr/pgsql-10/bin/pg_archivecleanup /data/openGauss/install/app/bin/
[root@hf-172-31-101-18 bin]# chown omm:dbgrp pg_archivecleanup

[dave@www.cndba.cn ~]$ pg_archivecleanup -d /data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog 000000010000000000000018
pg_archivecleanup: keeping WAL file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/000000010000000000000018" and later
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/000000010000000000000007"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/000000010000000000000008"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/000000010000000000000009"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/00000001000000000000000A"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/00000001000000000000000B"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/00000001000000000000000C"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/00000001000000000000000D"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/00000001000000000000000E"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/00000001000000000000000F"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/000000010000000000000010"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/000000010000000000000011"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/000000010000000000000012"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/000000010000000000000013"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/000000010000000000000014"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/000000010000000000000015"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/000000010000000000000016"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/pg_xlog/000000010000000000000017"
[dave@www.cndba.cn ~]$

4 归档文件删除

4.1 通过脚本配置归档定期删除

archive_command : 可以传入一个shell命令或者一个复杂的shell脚本。

%p : 表示将要归档的wal文件包含完整路径的信息的文件名(就是需要归档的临时文件)
%f : 代表不包含路径信息的wal文件的文件名
%% : 表示%

当启用归档后,会生成大量得归档文件,如果没有及时删除,会导致磁盘空间撑满。 所以我们可以在archive_command目录中,传入脚本,在归档得同时,删除之前得脚本:

创建shell脚本:

[dave@www.cndba.cn dn]$ cat arch.sh 
#!/bin/sh
test ! -f /data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog/$1 && cp --preserve=timestamps $2 /data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog/$1 ; find /data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog/ -type f -mtime +7 -exec rm -f {} /;
[dave@www.cndba.cn dn]$ chmod a+x arch.sh 
[dave@www.cndba.cn dn]$

修改archive_command参数:

web=# alter system set archive_command = '/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/arch.sh %f %p';
ALTER SYSTEM SET

切换归档:


web=# select pg_switch_xlog();
 pg_switch_xlog 
----------------
 0/180139E0
(1 row)

web=#

此时就直接生成了:

[dave@www.cndba.cn archivelog]$ pwd
/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog
[dave@www.cndba.cn archivelog]$ ll
total 16384
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 19:20 000000010000000000000018
[dave@www.cndba.cn archivelog]$

4.2 手工删除归档文件

web=# select * from pg_ls_waldir() order by modification asc;
           name           |   size   |      modification      
--------------------------+----------+------------------------
 00000001000000000000001F | 16777216 | 2023-02-19 16:38:09+08
 000000010000000000000020 | 16777216 | 2023-02-21 05:43:26+08
 000000010000000000000021 | 16777216 | 2023-02-22 18:03:57+08
 000000010000000000000022 | 16777216 | 2023-02-23 23:08:48+08
 000000010000000000000023 | 16777216 | 2023-02-25 04:13:32+08
 000000010000000000000024 | 16777216 | 2023-02-26 16:34:54+08
 00000001000000000000001E | 16777216 | 2023-03-13 14:13:32+08
 000000010000000000000019 | 16777216 | 2023-03-13 14:13:32+08
 00000001000000000000001A | 16777216 | 2023-03-13 14:13:32+08
 00000001000000000000001B | 16777216 | 2023-03-13 14:13:32+08
 00000001000000000000001C | 16777216 | 2023-03-13 14:13:32+08
 00000001000000000000001D | 16777216 | 2023-03-13 14:13:32+08
 000000010000000000000018 | 16777216 | 2023-03-13 18:49:17+08
(13 rows)

[root@db1 pg_wal]# pwd
/var/lib/pgsql/14/data/pg_wal
[root@db1 pg_wal]# ll
total 81920
-rw-------. 1 postgres postgres 16777216 Aug 13 01:24 000000010000000000000008
-rw-------. 1 postgres postgres 16777216 Aug 13 01:01 000000010000000000000009
-rw-------. 1 postgres postgres 16777216 Aug 13 01:01 00000001000000000000000A
-rw-------. 1 postgres postgres 16777216 Aug 13 01:19 00000001000000000000000B
-rw-------. 1 postgres postgres 16777216 Aug 13 01:21 00000001000000000000000C
drwx------. 2 postgres postgres        6 Aug 13 01:24 archive_status
[root@db1 pg_wal]#

查看检查点以前的WAL文件

[dave@www.cndba.cn bin]$ ps -ef|grep openGauss
omm      17111 15284  0 18:50 pts/7    00:00:00 grep --color=auto openGauss
omm      36144     1  6 14:04 ?        00:19:15 /data/openGauss/install/app/bin/gaussdb -D /data/openGauss/install/data/dn
[dave@www.cndba.cn bin]$ pg_controldata /data/openGauss/install/data/dn
pg_control version number:            923
Catalog version number:               201611171
Database system identifier:           4095258363992716874
Database cluster state:               in production
pg_control last modified:             Mon 13 Mar 2023 06:50:18 PM CST
Latest checkpoint location:           0/18011748
Prior checkpoint location:            0/18011628
Latest checkpoint's REDO location:    0/180116C8
Latest checkpoint's TimeLineID:       1
Latest checkpoint's full_page_writes: off
Latest checkpoint's NextXID:          69064
Latest checkpoint's NextOID:          16474
Latest checkpoint's NextMultiXactId:  2
Latest checkpoint's NextMultiOffset:  0
Latest checkpoint's oldestXID:        12663
Latest checkpoint's oldestXID's DB:   15481
Latest checkpoint's oldestActiveXID:  69064
Latest checkpoint's remove lsn:          0/8
……

这里表示000000010000000000000018 之前得文件都可以删除,在系统层面删除这些归档文件即可,可以手工执行rm 也可以通过pg_archivecleanup命令进行:https://www.cndba.cn/dave/article/116488

[dave@www.cndba.cn ~]$ cd  /data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog/
[dave@www.cndba.cn archivelog]$ ll
total 196608
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000001
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000002
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000003
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000004
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000005
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000006
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000012
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000013
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000014
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000015
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000016
-rw------- 1 omm dbgrp 16777216 Mar 13 15:01 000000010000000000000017
[dave@www.cndba.cn archivelog]$ pg_archivecleanup -d /data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog/ 000000010000000000000018
pg_archivecleanup: keeping WAL file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog//000000010000000000000018" and later
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog//000000010000000000000001"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog//000000010000000000000002"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog//000000010000000000000003"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog//000000010000000000000004"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog//000000010000000000000005"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog//000000010000000000000006"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog//000000010000000000000012"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog//000000010000000000000013"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog//000000010000000000000014"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog//000000010000000000000015"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog//000000010000000000000016"
pg_archivecleanup: removing file "/data/openGauss/install/data/dn/archivelog//000000010000000000000017"
[dave@www.cndba.cn archivelog]$ ll
total 0
[dave@www.cndba.cn archivelog]$

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